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BitcoinStocks

A place to discuss the wild wild west that is Bitcoin stocks.
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Bitcoin - The Currency of the Internet

A community dedicated to Bitcoin, the currency of the Internet. Bitcoin is a distributed, worldwide, decentralized digital money. Bitcoins are issued and managed without any central authority whatsoever: there is no government, company, or bank in charge of Bitcoin. You might be interested in Bitcoin if you like cryptography, distributed peer-to-peer systems, or economics. A large percentage of Bitcoin enthusiasts are libertarians, though people of all political philosophies are welcome.
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Long live Decentralized Bitcoin

User Activated Soft Fork
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John Newbery will host a Bitcoin PR review club on Freenode IRC channel #bitcoin-core-pr-reviews

John Newbery will host a Bitcoin PR review club on Freenode IRC channel #bitcoin-core-pr-reviews submitted by myquidproquo to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

[ANN] Uncensored Bitcoin IRC channel: #bitcoinchat on irc.freenode.net:6667

Jihan Wu had a great idea to sponsor the promotion of an uncensored Bitcoin communications channel. To be clear, I am not asking for any money. If he wants to spend his money promoting it, he can definitely do that, but I would prefer to be left out of it those decisions.
I have registered an IRC channel for uncensored Bitcoin discussion:
#bitcoinchat on irc.freenode.net:6667
The operators of the chatroom have no affiliation with Bitcoin development. They only have an interest a laissez faire approach to open and uncensored Bitcoin communication.
IRC on your IRC Client
IRC in your Browser
To be clear, this is an uncensored chatroom. This means that there are no protections against spamming, scams, points of view, etc. Therefore, if any particular IRC user does not like anything that is being said by another person, he is encouraged to set his own IRC software to ignore that person.
Hope you guys enjoy!
submitted by ugtarmas to btc [link] [comments]

[UPDATE] Uncensored Bitcoin IRC channel now has 50 users and won't be shut down: #bitcoinchat on irc.freenode.net:6667

A few day ago, I announced a new uncensored Bitcoin IRC channel. Today, I am happy to report that we now have 50 users after just three days.
I would also like to thank the team at Bitcoin.com for listing this channel on https://irc.bitcoin.com/
This was an incredibly important step, because Freenode suggests that channels be associated with a project: https://freenode.net/policies
"Channels on freenode fall into one of two categories. Primary channels, which begin with a single # character, are reserved for on-topic projects. If you’d like to take over one of these channels, then you’ll need to be associated in some way with the project in question."
I have noticed that some people have drawn attention to this, and was worried about some bad actors mis-informing Freenode and trying to get this uncensored channel shut down. Happy to report that this is no longer a risk!
IRC on your IRC Client
IRC in your Browser
submitted by ugtarmas to btc [link] [comments]

[UPDATE] Uncensored Bitcoin IRC channel now has 30 users: #bitcoinchat on irc.freenode.net:6667

Hello all!
Yesterday, I announced a new uncensored Bitcoin IRC channel.
Today, I am happy to report that we now have 30 35 40 users after just a single day.
This channel could not have come soon enough, as we now have Bitcoin devs threatened with being banned from the other Bitcoin channel.
IRC on your IRC Client
IRC in your Browser
submitted by ugtarmas to btc [link] [comments]

@futjrn @Blockstream freenode IRC #sidechains-dev, or bitcoin core slack, #elements channel, it is the FOSS platfor… https://t.co/jUGgNgGPpJ - Crypto Dynamic Info - Whales's

Posted at: January 17, 2019 at 07:48PM
By:
@futjrn @Blockstream freenode IRC #sidechains-dev, or bitcoin core slack, #elements channel, it is the FOSS platfor… https://t.co/jUGgNgGPpJ
Automate your Trading via Crypto Bot : http://bit.ly/2GynF9t
Join Telegram Channel for FREE Crypto Bot: Crypto Signal
submitted by cryptotradingbot to cryptobots [link] [comments]

[ANN] Uncensored Bitcoin IRC channel: #bitcoinchat on irc.freenode.net:6667 /r/btc

[ANN] Uncensored Bitcoin IRC channel: #bitcoinchat on irc.freenode.net:6667 /btc submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

[UPDATE] Uncensored Bitcoin IRC channel now has 50 users and won't be shut down: #bitcoinchat on irc.freenode.net:6667 /r/btc

[UPDATE] Uncensored Bitcoin IRC channel now has 50 users and won't be shut down: #bitcoinchat on irc.freenode.net:6667 /btc submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

[UPDATE] Uncensored Bitcoin IRC channel now has 30 users: #bitcoinchat on irc.freenode.net:6667 /r/btc

[UPDATE] Uncensored Bitcoin IRC channel now has 30 users: #bitcoinchat on irc.freenode.net:6667 /btc submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Technical: Taproot: Why Activate?

This is a follow-up on https://old.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/hqzp14/technical_the_path_to_taproot_activation/
Taproot! Everybody wants it!! But... you might ask yourself: sure, everybody else wants it, but why would I, sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, want it? Surely I can be better than everybody else because I swapped XXX fiat for Bitcoin unlike all those nocoiners?
And it is important for you to know the reasons why you, o sovereign Bitcoiner, would want Taproot activated. After all, your nodes (or the nodes your wallets use, which if you are SPV, you hopefully can pester to your wallet vendoimplementor about) need to be upgraded in order for Taproot activation to actually succeed instead of becoming a hot sticky mess.
First, let's consider some principles of Bitcoin.
I'm sure most of us here would agree that the above are very important principles of Bitcoin and that these are principles we would not be willing to remove. If anything, we would want those principles strengthened (especially the last one, financial privacy, which current Bitcoin is only sporadically strong with: you can get privacy, it just requires effort to do so).
So, how does Taproot affect those principles?

Taproot and Your /Coins

Most HODLers probably HODL their coins in singlesig addresses. Sadly, switching to Taproot would do very little for you (it gives a mild discount at spend time, at the cost of a mild increase in fee at receive time (paid by whoever sends to you, so if it's a self-send from a P2PKH or bech32 address, you pay for this); mostly a wash).
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash, so the Taproot output spends 12 bytes more; spending from a P2WPKH requires revealing a 32-byte public key later, which is not needed with Taproot, and Taproot signatures are about 9 bytes smaller than P2WPKH signatures, but the 32 bytes plus 9 bytes is divided by 4 because of the witness discount, so it saves about 11 bytes; mostly a wash, it increases blockweight by about 1 virtual byte, 4 weight for each Taproot-output-input, compared to P2WPKH-output-input).
However, as your HODLings grow in value, you might start wondering if multisignature k-of-n setups might be better for the security of your savings. And it is in multisignature that Taproot starts to give benefits!
Taproot switches to using Schnorr signing scheme. Schnorr makes key aggregation -- constructing a single public key from multiple public keys -- almost as trivial as adding numbers together. "Almost" because it involves some fairly advanced math instead of simple boring number adding, but hey when was the last time you added up your grocery list prices by hand huh?
With current P2SH and P2WSH multisignature schemes, if you have a 2-of-3 setup, then to spend, you need to provide two different signatures from two different public keys. With Taproot, you can create, using special moon math, a single public key that represents your 2-of-3 setup. Then you just put two of your devices together, have them communicate to each other (this can be done airgapped, in theory, by sending QR codes: the software to do this is not even being built yet, but that's because Taproot hasn't activated yet!), and they will make a single signature to authorize any spend from your 2-of-3 address. That's 73 witness bytes -- 18.25 virtual bytes -- of signatures you save!
And if you decide that your current setup with 1-of-1 P2PKH / P2WPKH addresses is just fine as-is: well, that's the whole point of a softfork: backwards-compatibility; you can receive from Taproot users just fine, and once your wallet is updated for Taproot-sending support, you can send to Taproot users just fine as well!
(P2WPKH and P2WSH -- SegWit v0 -- addresses start with bc1q; Taproot -- SegWit v1 --- addresses start with bc1p, in case you wanted to know the difference; in bech32 q is 0, p is 1)
Now how about HODLers who keep all, or some, of their coins on custodial services? Well, any custodial service worth its salt would be doing at least 2-of-3, or probably something even bigger, like 11-of-15. So your custodial service, if it switched to using Taproot internally, could save a lot more (imagine an 11-of-15 getting reduced from 11 signatures to just 1!), which --- we can only hope! --- should translate to lower fees and better customer service from your custodial service!
So I think we can say, very accurately, that the Bitcoin principle --- that YOU are in control of your money --- can only be helped by Taproot (if you are doing multisignature), and, because P2PKH and P2WPKH remain validly-usable addresses in a Taproot future, will not be harmed by Taproot. Its benefit to this principle might be small (it mostly only benefits multisignature users) but since it has no drawbacks with this (i.e. singlesig users can continue to use P2WPKH and P2PKH still) this is still a nice, tidy win!
(even singlesig users get a minor benefit, in that multisig users will now reduce their blockchain space footprint, so that fees can be kept low for everybody; so for example even if you have your single set of private keys engraved on titanium plates sealed in an airtight box stored in a safe buried in a desert protected by angry nomads riding giant sandworms because you're the frickin' Kwisatz Haderach, you still gain some benefit from Taproot)
And here's the important part: if P2PKH/P2WPKH is working perfectly fine with you and you decide to never use Taproot yourself, Taproot will not affect you detrimentally. First do no harm!

Taproot and Your Contracts

No one is an island, no one lives alone. Give and you shall receive. You know: by trading with other people, you can gain expertise in some obscure little necessity of the world (and greatly increase your productivity in that little field), and then trade the products of your expertise for necessities other people have created, all of you thereby gaining gains from trade.
So, contracts, which are basically enforceable agreements that facilitate trading with people who you do not personally know and therefore might not trust.
Let's start with a simple example. You want to buy some gewgaws from somebody. But you don't know them personally. The seller wants the money, you want their gewgaws, but because of the lack of trust (you don't know them!! what if they're scammers??) neither of you can benefit from gains from trade.
However, suppose both of you know of some entity that both of you trust. That entity can act as a trusted escrow. The entity provides you security: this enables the trade, allowing both of you to get gains from trade.
In Bitcoin-land, this can be implemented as a 2-of-3 multisignature. The three signatories in the multisgnature would be you, the gewgaw seller, and the escrow. You put the payment for the gewgaws into this 2-of-3 multisignature address.
Now, suppose it turns out neither of you are scammers (whaaaat!). You receive the gewgaws just fine and you're willing to pay up for them. Then you and the gewgaw seller just sign a transaction --- you and the gewgaw seller are 2, sufficient to trigger the 2-of-3 --- that spends from the 2-of-3 address to a singlesig the gewgaw seller wants (or whatever address the gewgaw seller wants).
But suppose some problem arises. The seller gave you gawgews instead of gewgaws. Or you decided to keep the gewgaws but not sign the transaction to release the funds to the seller. In either case, the escrow is notified, and if it can sign with you to refund the funds back to you (if the seller was a scammer) or it can sign with the seller to forward the funds to the seller (if you were a scammer).
Taproot helps with this: like mentioned above, it allows multisignature setups to produce only one signature, reducing blockchain space usage, and thus making contracts --- which require multiple people, by definition, you don't make contracts with yourself --- is made cheaper (which we hope enables more of these setups to happen for more gains from trade for everyone, also, moon and lambos).
(technology-wise, it's easier to make an n-of-n than a k-of-n, making a k-of-n would require a complex setup involving a long ritual with many communication rounds between the n participants, but an n-of-n can be done trivially with some moon math. You can, however, make what is effectively a 2-of-3 by using a three-branch SCRIPT: either 2-of-2 of you and seller, OR 2-of-2 of you and escrow, OR 2-of-2 of escrow and seller. Fortunately, Taproot adds a facility to embed a SCRIPT inside a public key, so you can have a 2-of-2 Taprooted address (between you and seller) with a SCRIPT branch that can instead be spent with 2-of-2 (you + escrow) OR 2-of-2 (seller + escrow), which implements the three-branched SCRIPT above. If neither of you are scammers (hopefully the common case) then you both sign using your keys and never have to contact the escrow, since you are just using the escrow public key without coordinating with them (because n-of-n is trivial but k-of-n requires setup with communication rounds), so in the "best case" where both of you are honest traders, you also get a privacy boost, in that the escrow never learns you have been trading on gewgaws, I mean ewww, gawgews are much better than gewgaws and therefore I now judge you for being a gewgaw enthusiast, you filthy gewgawer).

Taproot and Your Contracts, Part 2: Cryptographic Boogaloo

Now suppose you want to buy some data instead of things. For example, maybe you have some closed-source software in trial mode installed, and want to pay the developer for the full version. You want to pay for an activation code.
This can be done, today, by using an HTLC. The developer tells you the hash of the activation code. You pay to an HTLC, paying out to the developer if it reveals the preimage (the activation code), or refunding the money back to you after a pre-agreed timeout. If the developer claims the funds, it has to reveal the preimage, which is the activation code, and you can now activate your software. If the developer does not claim the funds by the timeout, you get refunded.
And you can do that, with HTLCs, today.
Of course, HTLCs do have problems:
Fortunately, with Schnorr (which is enabled by Taproot), we can now use the Scriptless Script constuction by Andrew Poelstra. This Scriptless Script allows a new construction, the PTLC or Pointlocked Timelocked Contract. Instead of hashes and preimages, just replace "hash" with "point" and "preimage" with "scalar".
Or as you might know them: "point" is really "public key" and "scalar" is really a "private key". What a PTLC does is that, given a particular public key, the pointlocked branch can be spent only if the spender reveals the private key of the given public key to you.
Another nice thing with PTLCs is that they are deniable. What appears onchain is just a single 2-of-2 signature between you and the developemanufacturer. It's like a magic trick. This signature has no special watermarks, it's a perfectly normal signature (the pledge). However, from this signature, plus some datta given to you by the developemanufacturer (known as the adaptor signature) you can derive the private key of a particular public key you both agree on (the turn). Anyone scraping the blockchain will just see signatures that look just like every other signature, and as long as nobody manages to hack you and get a copy of the adaptor signature or the private key, they cannot get the private key behind the public key (point) that the pointlocked branch needs (the prestige).
(Just to be clear, the public key you are getting the private key from, is distinct from the public key that the developemanufacturer will use for its funds. The activation key is different from the developer's onchain Bitcoin key, and it is the activation key whose private key you will be learning, not the developer's/manufacturer's onchain Bitcoin key).
So:
Taproot lets PTLCs exist onchain because they enable Schnorr, which is a requirement of PTLCs / Scriptless Script.
(technology-wise, take note that Scriptless Script works only for the "pointlocked" branch of the contract; you need normal Script, or a pre-signed nLockTimed transaction, for the "timelocked" branch. Since Taproot can embed a script, you can have the Taproot pubkey be a 2-of-2 to implement the Scriptless Script "pointlocked" branch, then have a hidden script that lets you recover the funds with an OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY after the timeout if the seller does not claim the funds.)

Quantum Quibbles!

Now if you were really paying attention, you might have noticed this parenthetical:
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash...)
So wait, Taproot uses raw 32-byte public keys, and not public key hashes? Isn't that more quantum-vulnerable??
Well, in theory yes. In practice, they probably are not.
It's not that hashes can be broken by quantum computes --- they're still not. Instead, you have to look at how you spend from a P2WPKH/P2PKH pay-to-public-key-hash.
When you spend from a P2PKH / P2WPKH, you have to reveal the public key. Then Bitcoin hashes it and checks if this matches with the public-key-hash, and only then actually validates the signature for that public key.
So an unconfirmed transaction, floating in the mempools of nodes globally, will show, in plain sight for everyone to see, your public key.
(public keys should be public, that's why they're called public keys, LOL)
And if quantum computers are fast enough to be of concern, then they are probably fast enough that, in the several minutes to several hours from broadcast to confirmation, they have already cracked the public key that is openly broadcast with your transaction. The owner of the quantum computer can now replace your unconfirmed transaction with one that pays the funds to itself. Even if you did not opt-in RBF, miners are still incentivized to support RBF on RBF-disabled transactions.
So the extra hash is not as significant a protection against quantum computers as you might think. Instead, the extra hash-and-compare needed is just extra validation effort.
Further, if you have ever, in the past, spent from the address, then there exists already a transaction indelibly stored on the blockchain, openly displaying the public key from which quantum computers can derive the private key. So those are still vulnerable to quantum computers.
For the most part, the cryptographers behind Taproot (and Bitcoin Core) are of the opinion that quantum computers capable of cracking Bitcoin pubkeys are unlikely to appear within a decade or two.
So:
For now, the homomorphic and linear properties of elliptic curve cryptography provide a lot of benefits --- particularly the linearity property is what enables Scriptless Script and simple multisignature (i.e. multisignatures that are just 1 signature onchain). So it might be a good idea to take advantage of them now while we are still fairly safe against quantum computers. It seems likely that quantum-safe signature schemes are nonlinear (thus losing these advantages).

Summary

I Wanna Be The Taprooter!

So, do you want to help activate Taproot? Here's what you, mister sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, can do!

But I Hate Taproot!!

That's fine!

Discussions About Taproot Activation

submitted by almkglor to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

[ Bitcoin ] Technical: Taproot: Why Activate?

Topic originally posted in Bitcoin by almkglor [link]
This is a follow-up on https://old.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/hqzp14/technical_the_path_to_taproot_activation/
Taproot! Everybody wants it!! But... you might ask yourself: sure, everybody else wants it, but why would I, sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, want it? Surely I can be better than everybody else because I swapped XXX fiat for Bitcoin unlike all those nocoiners?
And it is important for you to know the reasons why you, o sovereign Bitcoiner, would want Taproot activated. After all, your nodes (or the nodes your wallets use, which if you are SPV, you hopefully can pester to your wallet vendoimplementor about) need to be upgraded in order for Taproot activation to actually succeed instead of becoming a hot sticky mess.
First, let's consider some principles of Bitcoin.
I'm sure most of us here would agree that the above are very important principles of Bitcoin and that these are principles we would not be willing to remove. If anything, we would want those principles strengthened (especially the last one, financial privacy, which current Bitcoin is only sporadically strong with: you can get privacy, it just requires effort to do so).
So, how does Taproot affect those principles?

Taproot and Your /Coins

Most HODLers probably HODL their coins in singlesig addresses. Sadly, switching to Taproot would do very little for you (it gives a mild discount at spend time, at the cost of a mild increase in fee at receive time (paid by whoever sends to you, so if it's a self-send from a P2PKH or bech32 address, you pay for this); mostly a wash).
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash, so the Taproot output spends 12 bytes more; spending from a P2WPKH requires revealing a 32-byte public key later, which is not needed with Taproot, and Taproot signatures are about 9 bytes smaller than P2WPKH signatures, but the 32 bytes plus 9 bytes is divided by 4 because of the witness discount, so it saves about 11 bytes; mostly a wash, it increases blockweight by about 1 virtual byte, 4 weight for each Taproot-output-input, compared to P2WPKH-output-input).
However, as your HODLings grow in value, you might start wondering if multisignature k-of-n setups might be better for the security of your savings. And it is in multisignature that Taproot starts to give benefits!
Taproot switches to using Schnorr signing scheme. Schnorr makes key aggregation -- constructing a single public key from multiple public keys -- almost as trivial as adding numbers together. "Almost" because it involves some fairly advanced math instead of simple boring number adding, but hey when was the last time you added up your grocery list prices by hand huh?
With current P2SH and P2WSH multisignature schemes, if you have a 2-of-3 setup, then to spend, you need to provide two different signatures from two different public keys. With Taproot, you can create, using special moon math, a single public key that represents your 2-of-3 setup. Then you just put two of your devices together, have them communicate to each other (this can be done airgapped, in theory, by sending QR codes: the software to do this is not even being built yet, but that's because Taproot hasn't activated yet!), and they will make a single signature to authorize any spend from your 2-of-3 address. That's 73 witness bytes -- 18.25 virtual bytes -- of signatures you save!
And if you decide that your current setup with 1-of-1 P2PKH / P2WPKH addresses is just fine as-is: well, that's the whole point of a softfork: backwards-compatibility; you can receive from Taproot users just fine, and once your wallet is updated for Taproot-sending support, you can send to Taproot users just fine as well!
(P2WPKH and P2WSH -- SegWit v0 -- addresses start with bc1q; Taproot -- SegWit v1 --- addresses start with bc1p, in case you wanted to know the difference; in bech32 q is 0, p is 1)
Now how about HODLers who keep all, or some, of their coins on custodial services? Well, any custodial service worth its salt would be doing at least 2-of-3, or probably something even bigger, like 11-of-15. So your custodial service, if it switched to using Taproot internally, could save a lot more (imagine an 11-of-15 getting reduced from 11 signatures to just 1!), which --- we can only hope! --- should translate to lower fees and better customer service from your custodial service!
So I think we can say, very accurately, that the Bitcoin principle --- that YOU are in control of your money --- can only be helped by Taproot (if you are doing multisignature), and, because P2PKH and P2WPKH remain validly-usable addresses in a Taproot future, will not be harmed by Taproot. Its benefit to this principle might be small (it mostly only benefits multisignature users) but since it has no drawbacks with this (i.e. singlesig users can continue to use P2WPKH and P2PKH still) this is still a nice, tidy win!
(even singlesig users get a minor benefit, in that multisig users will now reduce their blockchain space footprint, so that fees can be kept low for everybody; so for example even if you have your single set of private keys engraved on titanium plates sealed in an airtight box stored in a safe buried in a desert protected by angry nomads riding giant sandworms because you're the frickin' Kwisatz Haderach, you still gain some benefit from Taproot)
And here's the important part: if P2PKH/P2WPKH is working perfectly fine with you and you decide to never use Taproot yourself, Taproot will not affect you detrimentally. First do no harm!

Taproot and Your Contracts

No one is an island, no one lives alone. Give and you shall receive. You know: by trading with other people, you can gain expertise in some obscure little necessity of the world (and greatly increase your productivity in that little field), and then trade the products of your expertise for necessities other people have created, all of you thereby gaining gains from trade.
So, contracts, which are basically enforceable agreements that facilitate trading with people who you do not personally know and therefore might not trust.
Let's start with a simple example. You want to buy some gewgaws from somebody. But you don't know them personally. The seller wants the money, you want their gewgaws, but because of the lack of trust (you don't know them!! what if they're scammers??) neither of you can benefit from gains from trade.
However, suppose both of you know of some entity that both of you trust. That entity can act as a trusted escrow. The entity provides you security: this enables the trade, allowing both of you to get gains from trade.
In Bitcoin-land, this can be implemented as a 2-of-3 multisignature. The three signatories in the multisgnature would be you, the gewgaw seller, and the escrow. You put the payment for the gewgaws into this 2-of-3 multisignature address.
Now, suppose it turns out neither of you are scammers (whaaaat!). You receive the gewgaws just fine and you're willing to pay up for them. Then you and the gewgaw seller just sign a transaction --- you and the gewgaw seller are 2, sufficient to trigger the 2-of-3 --- that spends from the 2-of-3 address to a singlesig the gewgaw seller wants (or whatever address the gewgaw seller wants).
But suppose some problem arises. The seller gave you gawgews instead of gewgaws. Or you decided to keep the gewgaws but not sign the transaction to release the funds to the seller. In either case, the escrow is notified, and if it can sign with you to refund the funds back to you (if the seller was a scammer) or it can sign with the seller to forward the funds to the seller (if you were a scammer).
Taproot helps with this: like mentioned above, it allows multisignature setups to produce only one signature, reducing blockchain space usage, and thus making contracts --- which require multiple people, by definition, you don't make contracts with yourself --- is made cheaper (which we hope enables more of these setups to happen for more gains from trade for everyone, also, moon and lambos).
(technology-wise, it's easier to make an n-of-n than a k-of-n, making a k-of-n would require a complex setup involving a long ritual with many communication rounds between the n participants, but an n-of-n can be done trivially with some moon math. You can, however, make what is effectively a 2-of-3 by using a three-branch SCRIPT: either 2-of-2 of you and seller, OR 2-of-2 of you and escrow, OR 2-of-2 of escrow and seller. Fortunately, Taproot adds a facility to embed a SCRIPT inside a public key, so you can have a 2-of-2 Taprooted address (between you and seller) with a SCRIPT branch that can instead be spent with 2-of-2 (you + escrow) OR 2-of-2 (seller + escrow), which implements the three-branched SCRIPT above. If neither of you are scammers (hopefully the common case) then you both sign using your keys and never have to contact the escrow, since you are just using the escrow public key without coordinating with them (because n-of-n is trivial but k-of-n requires setup with communication rounds), so in the "best case" where both of you are honest traders, you also get a privacy boost, in that the escrow never learns you have been trading on gewgaws, I mean ewww, gawgews are much better than gewgaws and therefore I now judge you for being a gewgaw enthusiast, you filthy gewgawer).

Taproot and Your Contracts, Part 2: Cryptographic Boogaloo

Now suppose you want to buy some data instead of things. For example, maybe you have some closed-source software in trial mode installed, and want to pay the developer for the full version. You want to pay for an activation code.
This can be done, today, by using an HTLC. The developer tells you the hash of the activation code. You pay to an HTLC, paying out to the developer if it reveals the preimage (the activation code), or refunding the money back to you after a pre-agreed timeout. If the developer claims the funds, it has to reveal the preimage, which is the activation code, and you can now activate your software. If the developer does not claim the funds by the timeout, you get refunded.
And you can do that, with HTLCs, today.
Of course, HTLCs do have problems:
Fortunately, with Schnorr (which is enabled by Taproot), we can now use the Scriptless Script constuction by Andrew Poelstra. This Scriptless Script allows a new construction, the PTLC or Pointlocked Timelocked Contract. Instead of hashes and preimages, just replace "hash" with "point" and "preimage" with "scalar".
Or as you might know them: "point" is really "public key" and "scalar" is really a "private key". What a PTLC does is that, given a particular public key, the pointlocked branch can be spent only if the spender reveals the private key of the given private key to you.
Another nice thing with PTLCs is that they are deniable. What appears onchain is just a single 2-of-2 signature between you and the developemanufacturer. It's like a magic trick. This signature has no special watermarks, it's a perfectly normal signature (the pledge). However, from this signature, plus some datta given to you by the developemanufacturer (known as the adaptor signature) you can derive the private key of a particular public key you both agree on (the turn). Anyone scraping the blockchain will just see signatures that look just like every other signature, and as long as nobody manages to hack you and get a copy of the adaptor signature or the private key, they cannot get the private key behind the public key (point) that the pointlocked branch needs (the prestige).
(Just to be clear, the public key you are getting the private key from, is distinct from the public key that the developemanufacturer will use for its funds. The activation key is different from the developer's onchain Bitcoin key, and it is the activation key whose private key you will be learning, not the developer's/manufacturer's onchain Bitcoin key).
So:
Taproot lets PTLCs exist onchain because they enable Schnorr, which is a requirement of PTLCs / Scriptless Script.
(technology-wise, take note that Scriptless Script works only for the "pointlocked" branch of the contract; you need normal Script, or a pre-signed nLockTimed transaction, for the "timelocked" branch. Since Taproot can embed a script, you can have the Taproot pubkey be a 2-of-2 to implement the Scriptless Script "pointlocked" branch, then have a hidden script that lets you recover the funds with an OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY after the timeout if the seller does not claim the funds.)

Quantum Quibbles!

Now if you were really paying attention, you might have noticed this parenthetical:
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash...)
So wait, Taproot uses raw 32-byte public keys, and not public key hashes? Isn't that more quantum-vulnerable??
Well, in theory yes. In practice, they probably are not.
It's not that hashes can be broken by quantum computes --- they're still not. Instead, you have to look at how you spend from a P2WPKH/P2PKH pay-to-public-key-hash.
When you spend from a P2PKH / P2WPKH, you have to reveal the public key. Then Bitcoin hashes it and checks if this matches with the public-key-hash, and only then actually validates the signature for that public key.
So an unconfirmed transaction, floating in the mempools of nodes globally, will show, in plain sight for everyone to see, your public key.
(public keys should be public, that's why they're called public keys, LOL)
And if quantum computers are fast enough to be of concern, then they are probably fast enough that, in the several minutes to several hours from broadcast to confirmation, they have already cracked the public key that is openly broadcast with your transaction. The owner of the quantum computer can now replace your unconfirmed transaction with one that pays the funds to itself. Even if you did not opt-in RBF, miners are still incentivized to support RBF on RBF-disabled transactions.
So the extra hash is not as significant a protection against quantum computers as you might think. Instead, the extra hash-and-compare needed is just extra validation effort.
Further, if you have ever, in the past, spent from the address, then there exists already a transaction indelibly stored on the blockchain, openly displaying the public key from which quantum computers can derive the private key. So those are still vulnerable to quantum computers.
For the most part, the cryptographers behind Taproot (and Bitcoin Core) are of the opinion that quantum computers capable of cracking Bitcoin pubkeys are unlikely to appear within a decade or two.
So:
For now, the homomorphic and linear properties of elliptic curve cryptography provide a lot of benefits --- particularly the linearity property is what enables Scriptless Script and simple multisignature (i.e. multisignatures that are just 1 signature onchain). So it might be a good idea to take advantage of them now while we are still fairly safe against quantum computers. It seems likely that quantum-safe signature schemes are nonlinear (thus losing these advantages).

Summary

I Wanna Be The Taprooter!

So, do you want to help activate Taproot? Here's what you, mister sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, can do!

But I Hate Taproot!!

That's fine!

Discussions About Taproot Activation

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What the upcoming years might hold in store for bitcoin (a technical outlook by John Newbery)

John Newbery is a developer contributing to Bitcoin Core and to various educational resources like Bitcoin Optech.
Original source is here: https://twitter.com/jfnewbery/status/1208559196465184768. Keep in mind that the text below is copied from Twitter, so the formatting/phrasing might seem a little strange.
--------------------------------------------------------

The end of the decade is a good time to look back and marvel at the giant strides that Bitcoin has made since Satoshi gave us the whitepaper in 2008. It's also a natural point to look forward to what the upcoming years might hold in store.
This is where I think Bitcoin is headed over the next few years. Tell me why I'm wrong and what I've missed!
The lightning protocol teams working on c-lightning (@Blockstream), eclair (@acinq_co), LND (@lightning) and rust lightning will continue to iterate rapidly on the lightning protocol.
All implementations now support basic multi-path payments (https://bitcoinops.org/en/topics/multipath-payments/). We'll get better support of that as well as dual-funding, splice-in and splice-out (https://bitcoinops.org/en/topics/splicing/).
Taken together, those technologies will make channel and liquidity management much easier. They'll be automated, fade into the background and user experience will improve drastically.
Lightning infrastructure will improve. @bitfinex recently added lightning deposits and withdrawals. All other exchanges, merchant service providers, custodians and wallets will follow suit or become obsolete.
We'll see more lightning wallets: a mix of non-custodial; self-custodied with outsourced routing; and fully-self-managed wallets. This is a brand new space and there'll be lots of experimentation. Different teams will find different niches to fill.
Already, wallets like @MuunWallet, @Breez_Tech, @PhoenixWallet, @ln_zapand @bluewalletio are experimenting with different models.
Tooling for lightning developers will improve. When we ran the lightning apps residency just over a year ago, the attendees spent a lot of time setting up their lightning dev environments.
Now, with Polar (https://github.com/jamaljspolar) by @jamaljsr, lightning app developers can set up a test environment with a few clicks. More and better tools will continue to appear.
With better tooling, we'll see faster innovation on the application layer. Teams at @zebedeeio, @SatoshisGames, and others we haven't heard of yet will delight us with new and unexpected lightning experiences.
The schnortaproot softfork (https://bitcoinops.org/en/topics/taproot/) will be activated in 2020 or 2021. That'll provide a huge improvement in fungibility, privacy, scalability and functionality. For an overview of the benefits, watch the Optech exec briefing here: https://bitcoinops.org/en/2019-exec-briefing/#the-next-softfork
That'll allow lightning to upgrade from HTLCs to Payment Points. That's a big improvement for privacy and payment decorrelation, and allows 'Stuckless payments' with proofs-of-payment -- another huge boost in LN usablity.
See the @suredbits series of blog posts here https://suredbits.com/payment-points-part-1/ for more details on Payment Points.
Even better, lightning channel opens and closes will look identical to payments to single pubkeys. The same is true for payments to k-of-n pubkey thresholds. That's good for fungibility, privacy and scalability.
In fact, with schnortaproot, there's almost no downside to encumbering UTXOs with advanced scripts instead of single pubkey outputs.
Cold storage UTXOs will be k-of-n multisig keytrees, and all hot wallet UTXOs will be stored in channels (with splicing-out used to make on-chain payments). When transactions hit the chain, they'll look like any other single pubkey/signature payment.
Payments into wallets will pay directly into channel open outputs (thanks to @esneider for pointing this out to me). There'll be no concept of an on-chain balance and an in-channel balance. Just a single, unified balance that can be used for lightning or on-chain payments.
Wallet teams will collaborate on a PayJoin payment protocol (https://bitcoinops.org/en/topics/payjoin/). A large number of on-chain transactions will be 2-input-2-ouput transactions, vastly improving fungibility and privacy, and foiling chain analysis.
The inputs to those PayJoin transactions may be channel splice-outs, and the outputs may be channel opens, but there'll be no way to tell from observing the chain.
Eventually we'll have cross-input signature aggregation (https://bitcoincore.org/en/2017/03/23/schnorr-signature-aggregation/#signature-aggregation), which means those PayJoin transactions will only have a single signature, and will be *cheaper* than regular change-producing transactions.
Larger coinjoins will be cheaper still. An advanced PayJoin payment protocol could even batch multiple payments to the same merchant/exchange and use only a single signature.
We'll get SIGHASH_NOINPUT or SIGHASH_ANYPREVOUT (https://bitcoinops.org/en/topics/sighash_noinput/), making eltoo (https://bitcoinops.org/en/topics/eltoo/) possible, and blurring the lines between layer 1 and layer 2 (https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/lightning-dev/2019-Septembe002136.html).
That'll make lightning even more usable and allow more advanced layer 2 contracts like channel factories (https://bitcoinops.org/en/topics/channel-factories/).
All these advanced features will require greater wallet interoperability. That's where miniscript (https://bitcoinops.org/en/topics/miniscript/) comes in.
With miniscript, wallets will eventually be able to enter contracts with each other that don't require pre-templated scripts (as lightning currently does). This wallet interoperability will allow faster innovation in layer 2 contracts.
OP_CTV (https://bitcoinops.org/en/newsletters/2019/12/04/#op-checktemplateverify-ctv) or some other covenant-enabling opcode will be activated, allowing richer layer 2 constructions like joinpools (https://freenode.irclog.whitequark.org/bitcoin-wizards/2019-05-21#1558427254-1558427441).
Taken together with taproot and SIGHASH_NOINPUT, we'll get extremely rich and private off-chain contracts will be made possible.
Some of these things will happen in 2020, and some will take a bit longer, but they're all heading in the same direction: using the chain for what the chain's good for (h/t Andrew Poelstra).
That's to say: the block chain allows nodes to arrive at an agreed ledger state, while contracting and functionality move up onto layer two. Doing so is cheaper, more secure, more private and allows for more rapid innovation.
None of this is inevitable, and none can happen without the industry of many hands and the creativity of many minds. There are years of work ahead for developers, researchers, businesses and users.
If you run a Bitcoin business, you can help by supporting, sponsoring or hiring open source developers.
If you're a Bitcoin user, you can help by *demanding* that any service you use supports the open source ecosystem.
If you're a developer, you can help by reviewing and testing PRs and releases. https://bitcoincore.reviews/ is a great place to start.
2020 is going to be a great year for Bitcoin and Lightning protocol development!
/fin
submitted by TheGreatMuffin to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Beginner's Guide: Where to start & FAQ!

New Flair Rule

We've been overwhelmed with newcomer posts. In light of this, we created a bot that will PM people without flairs various pertinent information to read through when they post. In order to stop receiving these, simply add a flair to your name. Thanks!

Scam Warning

Hey guys. There have been numerous scammers lately who have been private messaging redditors. Their goal is for you to send Litecoins to their address. So far, they've followed the same writing template. It looks something like this: https://imgur.com/0UZczuz
If someone is telling you to send to a Litecoin address they are providing, DON'T. They're trying to steal your Litecoins. If you're not sure, read the wealth of knowledge below or comment below and I will eventually get to you.

Welcome to /Litecoin!

(Re-post of u/Sparkswont cuz it was archived)
Whether you're new to cryptocurrency and have no clue what a 'litecoin' is, or a seasoned investor in cryptocurrencies, the resources below will answer all your questions. If you still have questions, feel free to ask below in the comments!
 

What is Litecoin?

Litecoin (LTC or Ł) is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency and open source software project released under the MIT/X11 license. Litecoin is one of the largest, oldest, and most used cryptocurrencies in the world. Similar to Bitcoin, Litecoin uses blockchain technology to process transactions.
So what's the difference? To process a block, Litecoin takes 2.5 minutes rather than Bitcoins 10 minutes. This allows for faster processing times. Litecoin also has the capability to produce a total of 84 million units, compared to Bitcoins 21 million. In addition, Litecoin uses scrypt in its proof-of-work algorithm, a sequential memory-hard function requiring asymptotically more memory than an algorithm which is not memory-hard.
Still confused? Take a look at this video!
 

Where can I buy Litecoin?

There are many websites and applications where you can buy and sell Litecoin, but make sure the exchange you are using is trusted and secure. Here are some exchanges that are trusted in the cryptocurrency community:
Exchange
Coinbase USD/Euro/GBP
Quadrigacx CAD
Coinsquare CAD
Bithump KRW
OKCoin Euro/Yen/USD
OKex CNY
Btcmarkets.net AUD
Bitso MXN
Zebpay INR
 

Where can I securely store Litecoin?

Litecoin (and other cryptocurrencies) is stored in a digital wallet. When storing Litecoin, you want to make sure you trust the place you store them. This is why it is best to store them yourself through the electrum wallet. It is highly suggested to not store your Litecoin in an exchange (such as Coinbase, Poloniex, Bittrex, etc.) because you don't control the private keys. If the exchange ever goes offline, or becomes insolvent, your Litecoin essentially disappear.
Some other options are:
Wallet
Electrum Lightweight Wallet
Official Core Wallet
LiteVault Secure Web Wallet
Paper Wallet Instructions
 
If you're a fan of mobile devices, then Loafwallet is the wallet for you. Developed by a Litecoin Foundation Dev, losh11, this mobile wallet works great! And remember to always make sure to write down your seedkeys.
 
Hardware wallets are another great option, in fact, they are said to be the most secure way to store cryptocurrencies. Below is a list of the litecoin flexible hardware wallets.
Wallet
Ledger
Trezor
Keepkey
 

Where can I spend Litecoin?

Litecoin is in the top ten of all cryptocurrencies by market capitalization. Websites are rapidly adopting Litecoin as a method of payment as well. If you yourself want to accept LTC as a business, you can refer to these merchant manuals. Alternatively, if you would like to explore websites that accept Litecoin, head over to /AcceptingLTC.
Here are also several of our favorite merchants accepting Litecoin.
 

Where can I discuss Litecoin?

The Litecoin community is extremely kind and robust. There are many forums and places where you can discuss Litecoin with others who are interested in the currency. Here are the main ones:
Platform
Reddit
Litecoin Markets Subreddit
Discord
Official Forum
IRC
 

Additional Resources and Help

If you have more questions, or are genuinely interested in learning more about Litecoin then be sure to read this series. If you have a specific question that you can't seem to find the answer too, ask below and someone will help you out!
submitted by ecurrencyhodler to litecoin [link] [comments]

Is there an even slightly active ancap irc channel?

I've been looking around and i've found no activity.
submitted by AdamosaurusRex to Anarcho_Capitalism [link] [comments]

⚡ Lightning Network Megathread ⚡

Last updated 2018-01-29
This post is a collaboration with the Bitcoin community to create a one-stop source for Lightning Network information.
There are still questions in the FAQ that are unanswered, if you know the answer and can provide a source please do so!

⚡What is the Lightning Network? ⚡

Explanations:

Image Explanations:

Specifications / White Papers

Videos

Lightning Network Experts on Reddit

  • starkbot - (Elizabeth Stark - Lightning Labs)
  • roasbeef - (Olaoluwa Osuntokun - Lightning Labs)
  • stile65 - (Alex Akselrod - Lightning Labs)
  • cfromknecht - (Conner Fromknecht - Lightning Labs)
  • RustyReddit - (Rusty Russell - Blockstream)
  • cdecker - (Christian Decker - Blockstream)
  • Dryja - (Tadge Dryja - Digital Currency Initiative)
  • josephpoon - (Joseph Poon)
  • fdrn - (Fabrice Drouin - ACINQ )
  • pmpadiou - (Pierre-Marie Padiou - ACINQ)

Lightning Network Experts on Twitter

  • @starkness - (Elizabeth Stark - Lightning Labs)
  • @roasbeef - (Olaoluwa Osuntokun - Lightning Labs)
  • @stile65 - (Alex Akselrod - Lightning Labs)
  • @bitconner - (Conner Fromknecht - Lightning Labs)
  • @johanth - (Johan Halseth - Lightning Labs)
  • @bvu - (Bryan Vu - Lightning Labs)
  • @rusty_twit - (Rusty Russell - Blockstream)
  • @snyke - (Christian Decker - Blockstream)
  • @JackMallers - (Jack Mallers - Zap)
  • @tdryja - (Tadge Dryja - Digital Currency Initiative)
  • @jcp - (Joseph Poon)
  • @alexbosworth - (Alex Bosworth - yalls.org)

Medium Posts

Learning Resources

Books

Desktop Interfaces

Web Interfaces

Tutorials and resources

Lightning on Testnet

Lightning Wallets

Place a testnet transaction

Altcoin Trading using Lightning

  • ZigZag - Disclaimer You must trust ZigZag to send to Target Address

Lightning on Mainnet

Warning - Testing should be done on Testnet

Atomic Swaps

Developer Documentation and Resources

Lightning implementations

  • LND - Lightning Network Daemon (Golang)
  • eclair - A Scala implementation of the Lightning Network (Scala)
  • c-lightning - A Lightning Network implementation in C
  • lit - Lightning Network node software (Golang)
  • lightning-onion - Onion Routed Micropayments for the Lightning Network (Golang)
  • lightning-integration - Lightning Integration Testing Framework
  • ptarmigan - C++ BOLT-Compliant Lightning Network Implementation [Incomplete]

Libraries

Lightning Network Visualizers/Explorers

Testnet

Mainnet

Payment Processors

  • BTCPay - Next stable version will include Lightning Network

Community

Slack

IRC

Slack Channel

Discord Channel

Miscellaneous

⚡ Lightning FAQs ⚡

If you can answer please PM me and include source if possible. Feel free to help keep these answers up to date and as brief but correct as possible
Is Lightning Bitcoin?
Yes. You pick a peer and after some setup, create a bitcoin transaction to fund the lightning channel; it’ll then take another transaction to close it and release your funds. You and your peer always hold a bitcoin transaction to get your funds whenever you want: just broadcast to the blockchain like normal. In other words, you and your peer create a shared account, and then use Lightning to securely negotiate who gets how much from that shared account, without waiting for the bitcoin blockchain.
Is the Lightning Network open source?
Yes, Lightning is open source. Anyone can review the code (in the same way as the bitcoin code)
Who owns and controls the Lightning Network?
Similar to the bitcoin network, no one will ever own or control the Lightning Network. The code is open source and free for anyone to download and review. Anyone can run a node and be part of the network.
I’ve heard that Lightning transactions are happening “off-chain”…Does that mean that my bitcoin will be removed from the blockchain?
No, your bitcoin will never leave the blockchain. Instead your bitcoin will be held in a multi-signature address as long as your channel stays open. When the channel is closed; the final transaction will be added to the blockchain. “Off-chain” is not a perfect term, but it is used due to the fact that the transfer of ownership is no longer reflected on the blockchain until the channel is closed.
Do I need a constant connection to run a lightning node?
Not necessarily,
Example: A and B have a channel. 1 BTC each. A sends B 0.5 BTC. B sends back 0.25 BTC. Balance should be A = 0.75, B = 1.25. If A gets disconnected, B can publish the first Tx where the balance was A = 0.5 and B = 1.5. If the node B does in fact attempt to cheat by publishing an old state (such as the A=0.5 and B=1.5 state), this cheat can then be detected on-chain and used to steal the cheaters funds, i.e., A can see the closing transaction, notice it's an old one and grab all funds in the channel (A=2, B=0). The time that A has in order to react to the cheating counterparty is given by the CheckLockTimeVerify (CLTV) in the cheating transaction, which is adjustable. So if A foresees that it'll be able to check in about once every 24 hours it'll require that the CLTV is at least that large, if it's once a week then that's fine too. You definitely do not need to be online and watching the chain 24/7, just make sure to check in once in a while before the CLTV expires. Alternatively you can outsource the watch duties, in order to keep the CLTV timeouts low. This can be achieved both with trusted third parties or untrusted ones (watchtowers). In the case of a unilateral close, e.g., you just go offline and never come back, the other endpoint will have to wait for that timeout to expire to get its funds back. So peers might not accept channels with extremely high CLTV timeouts. -- Source
What Are Lightning’s Advantages?
Tiny payments are possible: since fees are proportional to the payment amount, you can pay a fraction of a cent; accounting is even done in thousandths of a satoshi. Payments are settled instantly: the money is sent in the time it takes to cross the network to your destination and back, typically a fraction of a second.
Does Lightning require Segregated Witness?
Yes, but not in theory. You could make a poorer lightning network without it, which has higher risks when establishing channels (you might have to wait a month if things go wrong!), has limited channel lifetime, longer minimum payment expiry times on each hop, is less efficient and has less robust outsourcing. The entire spec as written today assumes segregated witness, as it solves all these problems.
Can I Send Funds From Lightning to a Normal Bitcoin Address?
No, for now. For the first version of the protocol, if you wanted to send a normal bitcoin transaction using your channel, you have to close it, send the funds, then reopen the channel (3 transactions). In future versions, you and your peer would agree to spend out of your lightning channel funds just like a normal bitcoin payment, allowing you to use your lightning wallet like a normal bitcoin wallet.
Can I Make Money Running a Lightning Node?
Not really. Anyone can set up a node, and so it’s a race to the bottom on fees. In practice, we may see the network use a nominal fee and not change very much, which only provides an incremental incentive to route on a node you’re going to use yourself, and not enough to run one merely for fees. Having clients use criteria other than fees (e.g. randomness, diversity) in route selection will also help this.
What is the release date for Lightning on Mainnet?
Lightning is already being tested on the Mainnet Twitter Link but as for a specific date, Jameson Lopp says it best
Would there be any KYC/AML issues with certain nodes?
Nope, because there is no custody ever involved. It's just like forwarding packets. -- Source
What is the delay time for the recipient of a transaction receiving confirmation?
Furthermore, the Lightning Network scales not with the transaction throughput of the underlying blockchain, but with modern data processing and latency limits - payments can be made nearly as quickly as packets can be sent. -- Source
How does the lightning network prevent centralization?
Bitcoin Stack Exchange Answer
What are Channel Factories and how do they work?
Bitcoin Stack Exchange Answer
How does the Lightning network work in simple terms?
Bitcoin Stack Exchange Answer
How are paths found in Lightning Network?
Bitcoin Stack Exchange Answer
How would the lightning network work between exchanges?
Each exchange will get to decide and need to implement the software into their system, but some ideas have been outlined here: Google Doc - Lightning Exchanges
Note that by virtue of the usual benefits of cost-less, instantaneous transactions, lightning will make arbitrage between exchanges much more efficient and thus lead to consistent pricing across exchange that adopt it. -- Source
How do lightning nodes find other lightning nodes?
Stack Exchange Answer
Does every user need to store the state of the complete Lightning Network?
According to Rusty's calculations we should be able to store 1 million nodes in about 100 MB, so that should work even for mobile phones. Beyond that we have some proposals ready to lighten the load on endpoints, but we'll cross that bridge when we get there. -- Source
Would I need to download the complete state every time I open the App and make a payment?
No you'd remember the information from the last time you started the app and only sync the differences. This is not yet implemented, but it shouldn't be too hard to get a preliminary protocol working if that turns out to be a problem. -- Source
What needs to happen for the Lightning Network to be deployed and what can I do as a user to help?
Lightning is based on participants in the network running lightning node software that enables them to interact with other nodes. This does not require being a full bitcoin node, but you will have to run "lnd", "eclair", or one of the other node softwares listed above.
All lightning wallets have node software integrated into them, because that is necessary to create payment channels and conduct payments on the network, but you can also intentionally run lnd or similar for public benefit - e.g. you can hold open payment channels or channels with higher volume, than you need for your own transactions. You would be compensated in modest fees by those who transact across your node with multi-hop payments. -- Source
Is there anyway for someone who isn't a developer to meaningfully contribute?
Sure, you can help write up educational material. You can learn and read more about the tech at http://dev.lightning.community/resources. You can test the various desktop and mobile apps out there (Lightning Desktop, Zap, Eclair apps). -- Source
Do I need to be a miner to be a Lightning Network node?
No -- Source
Do I need to run a full Bitcoin node to run a lightning node?
lit doesn't depend on having your own full node -- it automatically connects to full nodes on the network. -- Source
LND uses a light client mode, so it doesn't require a full node. The name of the light client it uses is called neutrino
How does the lightning network stop "Cheating" (Someone broadcasting an old transaction)?
Upon opening a channel, the two endpoints first agree on a reserve value, below which the channel balance may not drop. This is to make sure that both endpoints always have some skin in the game as rustyreddit puts it :-)
For a cheat to become worth it, the opponent has to be absolutely sure that you cannot retaliate against him during the timeout. So he has to make sure you never ever get network connectivity during that time. Having someone else also watching for channel closures and notifying you, or releasing a canned retaliation, makes this even harder for the attacker. This is because if he misjudged you being truly offline you can retaliate by grabbing all of its funds. Spotty connections, DDoS, and similar will not provide the attacker the necessary guarantees to make cheating worthwhile. Any form of uncertainty about your online status acts as a deterrent to the other endpoint. -- Source
How many times would someone need to open and close their lightning channels?
You typically want to have more than one channel open at any given time for redundancy's sake. And we imagine open and close will probably be automated for the most part. In fact we already have a feature in LND called autopilot that can automatically open channels for a user.
Frequency will depend whether the funds are needed on-chain or more useful on LN. -- Source
Will the lightning network reduce BTC Liquidity due to "locking-up" funds in channels?
Stack Exchange Answer
Can the Lightning Network work on any other cryptocurrency? How?
Stack Exchange Answer
When setting up a Lightning Network Node are fees set for the entire node, or each channel when opened?
You don't really set up a "node" in the sense that anyone with more than one channel can automatically be a node and route payments. Fees on LN can be set by the node, and can change dynamically on the network. -- Source
Can Lightning routing fees be changed dynamically, without closing channels?
Yes but it has to be implemented in the Lightning software being used. -- Source
How can you make sure that there will be routes with large enough balances to handle transactions?
You won't have to do anything. With autopilot enabled, it'll automatically open and close channels based on the availability of the network. -- Source
How does the Lightning Network stop flooding nodes (DDoS) with micro transactions? Is this even an issue?
Stack Exchange Answer

Unanswered Questions

How do on-chain fees work when opening and closing channels? Who pays the fee?
How does the Lightning Network work for mobile users?
What are the best practices for securing a lightning node?
What is a lightning "hub"?
How does lightning handle cross chain (Atomic) swaps?

Special Thanks and Notes

  • Many links found from awesome-lightning-network github
  • Everyone who submitted a question or concern!
  • I'm continuing to format for an easier Mobile experience!
submitted by codedaway to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Brief History Of Bitcoin

Brief History Of Bitcoin
Bitcoins have been classed as the world's originally decentralized cash, and for as far back as ten years, they have become all the more notable and keep on developing in notoriety.

The following is a concise history of how the Bitcoin began and what has occurred since.

2007 - It was in 2007 that the idea of the Bitcoin started. It is accepted that it was begun by Satoshi Nakamoto, in spite of the fact that very little is thought about him, other than the reality he is on record as living in Japan. Truth be told, many conjecture this may very well be a pen name more than one individual. Albeit soon, this character totally evaporated from the world.

August 2008 An application for an encryption patent application was recorded by three people who denied having any association with the supposed originator of the Bitcoin idea. They were Neal Kin, Vladimir Oksman and Charles Bry.

Around the same time, they namelessly purchased and enlisted the space bitcoin.org.

October 2008 In October of 2008, only two months after the space was enlisted, a paper titled, 'Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System', was distributed on a cryptography mailing list, apparently composed by Satoshi Nakamoto.

The paper laid out the establishment of how the Bitcoin would really work, and takes care of the issue of cash being duplicated, which permitted Bitcoin to develop genuinely.

November 2008 A month after the white paper was distributed, the Bitcoin venture is enlisted on a network joint effort site, SourceForge, which centers around the improvement and circulation of open source programming.

January 2009 In mid 2009, the principal square, which was nicknamed 'Beginning' is propelled, which permitted the primary adaptation of Bitcoin to be discharged.

There was further hypothesis that Bitcoins were created by more than one individual, as it had been accumulated with Microsoft Visual Studio for Windows, yet needed order line interface. It was anticipated as of now that a Bitcoin age framework would make a sum of 21 million Bitcoins during that time 2040.

Later on, right now, first exchange occurred among Satoshi and Hal Finney, a designer and cryptographic lobbyist.

October 2009 In October, New Liberty Standard distributes a Bitcoin swapping scale. The worth was built up and they distributed a pace of a Bitcoin at 1USD = 1,309.03 BTC. This was chosen utilizing a condition that incorporated the expense of the power to run the PC that produced Bitcoins.

Later on this month, the #bitcoin-dev channel is enrolled on freenode IRC, which was a conversation arrange intended for nothing and open source advancement networks.

December 2009 In late 2009, the second form of the Bitcoin was created and discharged; anyway later on in the month, they acquired their first trouble increment.

February 2010 In mid 2010, the Bitcoin money trade was conceived, and the Market was built up by the now ancient organization dollar. Later on in the month, and 18 months after the application was documented, the encryption patent was distributed and endorsed.

May 2010 This month would end up being an achievement for Bitcoins, because of the way that the primary genuine exchange occurred. A software engineer named Laszlo Hanyecz, who lived in Florida pays 10,000 Bitcoins on a pizza, that was initially purchased from Papa Johns by a volunteer in England. The conversion scale at the time put the price tag for the pizza at 25USD.

https://preview.redd.it/93tj7l1248g41.jpg?width=750&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=ddd04f2fc86eaf33bc9894dd98f30781511c4f42
Given the present swapping scale, today the pizza is esteemed at 1,961,034GBP.

July 2010 The third form of Bitcoin is created and discharged. Later on that month, there were an enormous number of new Bitcoin clients, on account of a notice of the new form on Slashdot.

During a multi day time of this current month, the trade estimation of Bitcoin expanded multiple times, from 0.0008USD/BTC to 0.080USD/BTC which the prompted Jed McCaleb building up a Bitcoin money trade showcase named MtGox.

August 2010 August 2010 end up being a sad month for the Bitcoin, and the framework was hacked. A defenselessness in the framework caused Bitcoins to be inappropriately checked, and accordingly abused, which brought about the age of 184 million Bitcoins. The made the worth drop radically.

September 2010 This was a bustling month for Bitcoins, as they attempted to recoup from the hacking the earlier month. An offer was made by jgarzik as 10,000BTC, which was proportionate to 650USD at that point, to open source their Windows-based CUDA customer. Later on that month, they took this offer and discharged the source, under the MIT permit.

October 2010 Bitcoins confronted a ton of investigation this month, when a between administrative gathering named The Financial Action Task Force gave a report on tax evasion, notice about the utilization of computerized monetary standards to fund fear based oppressor gatherings.

In spite of this report, the Bitcoin swapping scale, which had slowed down, started to climb once more. This came after the principal open adaptation of an OpenCL digger is discharged.
submitted by Bitcoin12investment to u/Bitcoin12investment [link] [comments]

Introducing Tari: A Decentralised Assets Protocol Built on Monero

What is Tari?

Tari is a decentralised assets protocol that is going to be built on top of Monero. Think of it as something like coloured coins or CounterParty, but for Monero and a lot more scalable (ie. not using an embedded consensus mechanism).

How is it built "on top of Monero"?

Tari will have a native token, like Counterparty, but it will operate as a merge-mined sidechain. Miners will be able to earn Tari block reward and fees as they mine Monero. In addition to binding itself to Monero's security model, Tari will also support atomic swaps between itself and Monero.

Who is building it?

Everyone! Tari will be an open-source project very much in the spirit of Monero, to the point of reusing a lot of the patterns we've developed for Monero over the years. However, it will initially be a little bit more centralised than Monero, which is fine as it is a layer 2 project that can afford to experiment a little without impacting on the purity of Monero's robustness and decentralisation.
This early form of centralisation comes in the form of the Tari organisation, which will act as a steward of the protocol in much the same way as the Monero Core Team acts as a steward of Monero. However, we have also formed Tari Labs based out of Johannesburg, South Africa, and we are in the process of hiring researchers, developers, and others, who will be among the first contributors to Tari.
That said, we do not believe that Tari Labs should be the sole owners of the ever-evolving design and architecture of the protocol, nor should they be the decision makers. They are merely a bunch of clever people working alongside anyone in the community that wishes to contribute to the Tari protocol.
If you would like to work at Tari Labs, and live in South Africa or are willing to relocate, then please do look at the available positions on the Tari website. Please note that on principle Tari Labs will not employ existing Monero contributors, so as not to place a drain on the relatively limited developer resources available to the Monero project.

You keep saying "we"...who is "we"?

Tari has been founded by myself (Riccardo Spagni), Naveen Jain, and Dan Teree. You can read more about us, as well as some of the other contributors to this very nascent project, on the About page on the Tari website.

So you're doing an ICO?

I will slay you where you stand.

Well then how will you pay for this?

I've decided to sell my watch and my power glove, obviously:-P
Seriously, though, Tari is backed by some of the world's leading top-tier VC firms, such as Redpoint, Trinity Ventures, Canaan Partners, Slow Ventures, Aspect Ventures, as well as some of the leading blockchain VC firms.

How does this benefit Monero?

Our investors believe in what we want to build with Tari, but they also believe in Monero as the world's leading private digital currency, and also as a powerful base layer upon which projects can be built. Because of this, we have capital that we are using to not only build the Tari protocol, but to enhance aspects of the Monero software stack and ecosystem.
Consider three examples of areas the Tari Labs team will be focusing on over the next year:
In addition, Tari has plans for ways we can more directly support Monero development in the future through the creation of development hubs around the world, where people will be able to apply for grants that will let them work on Monero or Tari for a period of time. This concept, whilst still in its infancy and quite far away from inception, will provide people with the opportunity to contribute to the Monero codebase, research, and ecosystem on a more regular, full-time basis.

Does this mean fluffypony is leaving Monero?!

No, not at all! In order to free up time for me to work on Tari I have taken two major steps in my professional life:
  1. I have stepped down as CEO of MyMonero, and have handed the reins to the very competent Paul Shapiro (aka endogenic). We are in the process of the last few bits being totally handed over, after which I will be non-operational on MyMonero.
  2. I have stepped down as CEO of GloBee, and have appointed a new CEO to replace me, Felix Honigwachs. Felix comes with a wealth of experience, having been a senior manager at Microsoft and at SAP, and more recently having been the founder and now-former CEO of one of the most influential healthcare software startups in South Africa. I have already become largely non-operational on GloBee as Felix has slid nicely into the role, even taking over my office and making me move to our management company's offices next door;)
That said, over the past year I've been reducing my roles within the Monero project itself, in order to ensure I am never a bus factor. Members of the community have stepped up to fill these roles, including Monero Core Team member luigi1111 taking over as lead maintainer on the Monero website and Monero GUI repos. I am determined to further reduce any reliance on me over time by continuing this trend, with an eventual goal of handing off the task of lead maintainer on the Monero CLI repo once we have added full support for deterministic builds.
My role in Monero will then solely focus on advocacy for Monero and privacy, technical advice and counsel to the contributors and maintainers where necessary, and I will continue to serve on the Core Team for as long as I am required and able to. In addition, I will also be spending a lot more time on the Monero Enterprise Alliance, which I hope to one day meme into existence.

What technologies will Tari be buit in?

While some of the moving parts will be determined among the development community as it comes together, one thing we have already decided on is to use Rust as our language of choice for the Tari protocol software. The decision to use Rust is partly because we believe that Rust is an incredibly capable language that is purpose-built for lower-level high performance software like this, but largely because we want to make sure that Tari does not drain any of the existing Monero contributor support.

This all sounds exciting...where do I sign up?

As mentioned before, we're reusing a lot of the patterns that have served the Monero community well over the past four years, some of which I'm directly responsible for and was quite surprised they worked at all;) The best places to join in the discussion and get involved with the burgeoning community are at:
submitted by fluffyponyza to Monero [link] [comments]

Is there a log for the #bitcoin IRC channel?

Is the chat log for the #bitcoin IRC channel stored anywhere on the Internet?
I can find the log for other bitcoin-related channels, but not the main #bitcoin one.
submitted by in3rsha to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Core PR Review Club - a weekly review club for Bitcoin Core pull requests (all welcome)

This is an initiative run by Bitcoin Core contributors such as John Newbery, Marco Falke and others. The goal is to provide interested people with insights how the Bitcoin Core review/pull request process works and to give them tools/skills needed for participation. The project's website is https://bitcoincore.reviews. The information below is copied from the site (there is some more material and informational links available).
We'll host a series of weekly review clubs on the #bitcoin-core-pr-reviews Freenode IRC channel at 18:00 UTC on Wednesdays. All are welcome to join and ask questions!
Reviewing and testing PRs is the best way to start contributing to Bitcoin Core, but it's difficult to know where to start. There are hundreds of open PRs, many require a lot of contextual knowledge, and contributors and reviewers often use unfamiliar terminology. This weekly IRC club is for people who want to help review Bitcoin Core PRs but find the process intimidating. Everyone is welcome to speak and questions are encouraged!
To take part, you should:
The point of the review club is to give participants the tools and knowledge they need to take part in the Bitcoin Core review process on github. Inclusion of a PR in the review club is not an endorsement of the concept, approach or implementation in the PR!

Upcoming meetings

20 Nov 2019 » #16442 Serve BIP 157 compact filters (p2p) hosted by pinheadmz
submitted by TheGreatMuffin to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

This is getting ridiculous

I'm in Canada so i cant use any of the sites that require US or European currency.
I've looked around for the last few hours on youtube, reddit, an assortment of bitcoin related sites and i just can't figure out how to buy some damn bitcoins.
Can anyone help a noob with some kind of step by meticulously small step process? lol i just want some damn bitcoins.
submitted by Dracivonican to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

TIL: #bitcoin is currently the largest channel on irc.freednode.net, beating out #ubuntu, #python, #emacs, #minecraft and others.

TIL: #bitcoin is currently the largest channel on irc.freednode.net, beating out #ubuntu, #python, #emacs, #minecraft and others. submitted by bgrnbrg to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Velkommen til BitcoinDK

Følgende videoer er et godt udgangspunkt til at forstå, hvordan Bitcoin virker og en lille smule om dets potentiale på lang sigt:
Tjek video wikisiden eller BitcoinTV.
Køb/Sælg bitcoins
Webshops med Bitcoin betaling
Webshops i EU med Bitcoin betaling
Webshops i med Bitcoin betaling * Newegg - Elektronik mm.
Lightning Network
LN on IOS
LN on Android
Hvad kan man med LN?
Steder hvor du kan bruge bitcoins, dog ikke nødvendigvis uden dialog
Donér
Info
Skat
Hanne Søgaard Hansen:
Men man er nødt til at set på den konkrete situation. Er det for at sælge eller for at bruge bitcoins som betalingsmiddel? * skat.dk - Guide * skat.dk - Skattefri gevinst * Børsens fortolkning * Spekulations beskatning Hvis du købte bitcoins for at sælge dem igen, og hvis de er faldet i værdi så kan du få fradrag. * Skattefri gevinst ved anvendelse som betalingsmiddel (Bindende personlig svar fra skat)
Moms
Reddit
Gode banker
Onde banker
Danske kryptonyheder
Ramt af ransomware
Nyttige sider
Chat
Via IRC - irc.freenode.net
submitted by bitcoinDKbot to BitcoinDK [link] [comments]

Beginner's Guide: Where to start & FAQ!

Welcome to /Litecoin!

Whether you're new to cryptocurrency and have no clue what a 'litecoin' is, or a seasoned investor in cryptocurrencies, the resources below will answer all your questions. If you still have questions, feel free to ask below in the comments!
 

What is Litecoin?

Litecoin (LTC or Ł) is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency and open source software project released under the MIT/X11 license. Litecoin is one of the largest, oldest, and most used cryptocurrencies in the world. Similar to Bitcoin, Litecoin uses blockchain technology to process transactions.
So what's the difference? To process a block, Litecoin takes 2.5 minutes rather than Bitcoins 10 minutes. This allows for faster processing times. Litecoin also has the capability to produce a total of 84 million units, compared to Bitcoins 21 million. In addition, Litecoin uses scrypt in its proof-of-work algorithm, a sequential memory-hard function requiring asymptotically more memory than an algorithm which is not memory-hard.
Still confused? Take a look at this video!
 

Where can I buy Litecoin?

There are many websites and applications where you can buy and sell Litecoin, but make sure the exchange you are using is trusted and secure. Here are some exchanges that are trusted in the cryptocurrency community:
Exchange
Coinbase
Kraken
247Exchange
Bittrex
Quadrigacx
 

Where can I securely store Litecoin?

Litecoin (and other cryptocurrencies) is stored in a digital wallet. When storing Litecoin, you want to make sure you trust the place you store them. This is why it is best to store them yourself through the electrum wallet. It is highly suggested to not store your Litecoin in an exchange (such as Coinbase, Poloniex, Bittrex, etc.) because you don't control the private keys. If the exchange ever goes offline, or becomes insolvent, your Litecoin essentially disappear.
Some other options are:
Wallet
Electrum Lightweight Wallet
Official Core Wallet
LiteVault Secure Web Wallet
Paper Wallet Generator
 
If you're a fan of mobile devices, then Loafwallet is the wallet for you. Developed by a Litecoin community member, losh11, this mobile wallet works great!
 
Hardware wallets are another great option, in fact, they are said to be the most secure way to store cryptocurrencies. Below is a list of the litecoin flexible hardware wallets.
Wallet
Ledger
Trezor
Keepkey
 

Where can I spend Litecoin?

Litecoin is now the sixth-largest true cryptocurrency by market capitalization. Websites are rapidly adopting Litecoin as a method of payment, if you would like to explore websites that accept Litecoin, head over to /AcceptingLTC.
Here are several of our favorite merchants accepting Litecoin:
Merchant
EGifter
Cheap Air
Bitfly
All Things Luxury
AFK Apparel
Many more!
 

Where can I discuss Litecoin?

The Litecoin community is extremely kind and robust. There are many forums and places where you can discuss Litecoin with others who are interested in the currency. Here are the main ones:
Platform
Reddit
Litecoin Markets Subreddit
Discord
Official Forum
IRC
 

Litecoin Statistics

Find them here
 

Additional Resources and Help

If you have more questions, or are genuinely interested in learning more about Litecoin then be sure to check out the Litecoin Wiki. If you have a specific question that you can't seem to find the answer too, ask below and someone will help you out!
submitted by Sparkswont to litecoin [link] [comments]

Blockchain Nodes - How to Make a Node on Raspberry Pi! Bitcoin Q&A: Running Nodes & Payment Channels - Andreas M ... How to run a Full Node ~ Bitcoin to the Max Wie installiere ich einen Bitcoin Full Node? - Tutorial Bitcoin Overdose - YouTube

Search Bitcoin in the channels list of IRC network freenode and get informed about freenode's users and topics! Current Chat Rooms: bitcoin-core-pr-reviews, bitcoin-forks, rust-bitcoin, namecoin, bitcoinchat, bitcoin-news, bitcoin-unregistered, secp256k1, bitcoin-market, bitcoincash Search Bitcoin in the channels list of IRC network freenode and get informed about freenode's users and topics! Current Chat Rooms: bitcoin, bitcoin-core-dev, bitcoin-pricetalk, bitcoin-otc, bitcoinsoftware, electrum, talos-workstation, lightning-dev, bitcoin-dev, bitcoin-core-pr-reviews As of right now, the service is home to about 90,000 internet users and 50,000 register channels on the IRC protocol. What is even more intriguing is how the entire Freenode project is managed by ... bitcoin IRC chat on freenode. Network: Freenode Server: irc.freenode.org Channel : #bitcoinFreenode Server: irc.freenode.org Channel : #bitcoin During the Easter weekend (April 12th to 15th) we will be purging the freenode services database. We periodically prune the database to remove expired accounts, nicknames and channels. Just like previous database purges we will be removing any accounts and nicknames that have not been used for 120 days at the time of the purge. We appreciate that not everyone remembers to identify to services ...

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Blockchain Nodes - How to Make a Node on Raspberry Pi!

Your Daily Dose of Crypto. I Overdose so you don’t have to. 1 Bitcoin = 1 Bitcoin. Flipping $*:!coins to Bitcoins! “Buy the Dip” Should more people run nodes? What is a pruned node? What are the costs? Why would a satellite connection be valuable to the network in terms reliability and... This is the 3rd video of the bitcoin lightning network tutorial series. How to fund your lightning node, open and fund a channel, decode an invoice, find a route and pay the invoice. Part I ... Wie installiere ich einen Bitcoin Full Node auf Windows 10? Jeder zusätzliche Node unterstützt das Bitcoin Netzwerk. Vielleicht möchtest Du auch einen Node i... Get your https://nodl.it today! Get early access to Bitcoin to the Max by supporting the channel on https://tallyco.in/purism https://www.patreon.com/wcn Rea...

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