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Coin-a-'Week': Peercoin (PPC)

Coin-a-Day Jan 3rd
Well, it's been more than a month since my last post, so I figured it's time to finally do this. I'm barely updating these, but I think it's somewhat interesting to see the changes that have happened over the almost half a year since I first wrote these.
Welcome to the third Coin-a-DayCoin-a-Week post! So far in this series we have talked about bitcoinbitcoin and dogecoindogecoin, which are proof-of-work coins. Today's coin is Peercoin (PPC), which is a "proof-of-stake" coin (actually a hybrid; more below).
Summary
• ~22 million available currently [1]; ~35 million in 2025, ~50 million in 2045, 1% annual inflation permanently [2]
• All-time high: ~$7 [3]
• Current price: ~$0.50; ~0.0017 BTC$0.30; 0.00128 BTC [1]
• Current market cap: ~$10.9 million $6.6 million [1]
• Block rate (average): 10 minutes [4]
• Transaction rate: 520 408 transactions in the last 24 hours, estimated ~$213,000 $83,600 [5]
• Transaction limit (currently): 7 transactions / second (?) [6]
• Transaction cost: Fixed at 0.01 PPC edit: per Kb [2]
• Rich list: Top 100 addresses hold 59.25% 59.52% [5]
• Exchanges: BTC-E mostly; BTC38 (Chinese); some volume on Cryptsy, The Rock Trading, and BTER as well [7]
• Processing method: Hybrid; proof-of-work and proof-of-stake
• Distribution method: proof-of-work block rewards and 1% inflation through proof-of-stake
• Community: Moderately active. [8]
• Code / development: https://github.com/ppcoin/ppcoin ; appears inactive, last release in April, last commit five months ago; however, developer Sunny King continues to give weekly updates and has announced an upcoming "cold-minting" feature [14] EDIT: Active pull request in progress. pull request; announcement; I was informed about this from the comment below; thanks Thireus !
Latest 0.5 version will be a mandatory upgrade with a two month release window. [15]
• Innovation or special value: First coin with proof-of-stake
Description:
So far we have covered two proof-of-work coins. This was the original type of coin. Peercoin introduced the concept of "proof-of-stake", where authority to generate a block was determined based on a brute-force hashing to reach a value less than a certain amount. In Peercoin's proof-of-staking, there is only one to check per unspent wallet-output per second, so there is very little demand for processing power and energy. The difficulty is decreased with increased coindays [9].
This model is argued by Peercoin supporters to be more efficient, since it obviates the need for a hardware arms-race and allows transaction processing by all stakeholders. The incentive for the stakeholders to "stake" (process transactions through proof-of-stake) is two-fold: first, in order to collect their 1% per coin-year reward, and second, to support the network they hold coins in, since the value of the coin is presumed to be related to the stability and reliability of its network.
There are a number of attacks which are argued to be possible in proof-of-stake which are not possible in proof-of-work [10]. There was a vulnerability which allowed generating a larger number of proof-of-stake blocks with a very small stake which took four months to close after public disclosure [11]. I wish I could provide a definitive answer about the security or vulnerability of this coin, but I am simply unaware of a good source at this point [12]. I have not found a "smoking gun" critique of the current system, but absence of proof, particularly when my "research" (googling) is so limited, and my exposure is so brief, is absolutely not to be taken for proof of absence. Today's challenge will focus on the security of Peercoin, and there will be a small reward for the best defense and the best critique.
Compared to the question of "is it secure?", I think the rest of the nuances like price history are relatively insignificant. In general, I expect that secure coins will continue to be transacted at some price level, and that they will often share a certain level of correlated price. Remember that I am not giving advice, but that's my take on it. So if there is no vulnerability to proof-of-stake, I expect it will continue to exist. And just as bitcoin has a strong place from being the first and having an active community, I expect that Peercoin would continue to have a place as the first proof-of-stake along with its smaller but also active community.
I had my concerns about the security resolved when this was posted. Like a whiny chump I'd gone through and deleted all of my stuff in a fit of pique, but the useful comments by TotalB00n are still there and may be useful reading.
The inactive development may not be an issue for now if there are no serious threats to Peercoin. Additionally, its blockchain is quite small, about 1/3rd of a Gigabyte currently[13], so the major feature of bitcoin's latest release, parallel block downloads, may be less relevant for peercoin.
[Note that the edit above on the code section is from the original time around. I'm too lazy to even look up whether or not there has been further development since, but it was at least somewhat active before, and perhaps didn't really need much.]
Community
Peercoin's community on Reddit (/peercoin) is relatively small, with less than 4k subscribers and no more than a couple posts a day. However, it appears on-topic and high-quality.
http://www.peercointalk.org/ looks active and significant. It is not comparable in size to a central hub like bitcointalk, but it is by no means dead.
There are additional community links on peercoin.net which I haven't explored.
Footnotes
[1] http://coinmarketcap.com/currencies/peercoin/
[2] https://github.com/ppcoin/ppcoin/wiki/FAQ
[3] http://www.cryptocoincharts.info/paippc/usd/btc-e/alltime I couldn't find anything just stating the number. And the UI here is terrible. But this approximately matches the coinmarketcap ATH in BTC with the BTC/USD at the time.
[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peercoin#Confirmations ; I wasn't sure if this accounted for PoS accurately as well, but given the last few hours shown at https://bkchain.org/ppc it does appear to be close ; don't ask me how it works, haven't taken the time to grok the whitepaper in detail yet ([9])
[5] https://bitinfocharts.com/ppcoin/
[6] I wasn't able to find a source addressing this. I'm presuming that since it's based on bitcoin and has 10 minute blocks, that it also shares the 1 Mb blocksize limit and that transactions are about the same size and thus the same 7 transactions / second current limit applies. I could absolutely be wrong about this; if you know better, please let me know and I will update. Given that this allows 604,800 transactions per day, and there weren't 0.1% as many transactions in the last 24 hours, I think it's safe to say this isn't a limiting factor for peercoin in the foreseeable future.
[7] http://coinmarketcap.com/currencies/peercoin/#markets
[8] Not as active as doge or bitcoin, but it looks like there's activity on http://www.peercointalk.org/, and /peercoin is quiet but not dead.
[9] http://www.peercoin.net/assets/papepeercoin-paper.pdf ; also available in many other languages (http://peercoin.net/whitepaper)
[10] http://www.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/2r6sqb/section_of_paycoins_source_code_designating_a/cnd096x 110101002 makes allegations along these lines. However, none of the critiques seem to be relevant and aware of the current Peercoin code. The claim is made that it was made centralized but I'm not aware of a Peercoin source that seems to make this claim. There are probably far better critiques and defenses of the security of Peercoin's proof-of-stake out there. I don't know how to best find them. This will be the topic for the challenges for this article.
[11] disclosure; acknowledgement; fix
[12] I have heard claims about "nothing-at-stake" attacks, which are based on the idea that a user might have stake in the system, then get the stake back, sell it, and then try to make their own chain building off the point where they had stake. This seems conceivable to me, but I do not know anywhere near enough to be able to make a reasonable argument one way or another. Unfortunately, most of the discussions on Proof-of-Stake seem more about ... well, there's no way to phrase it politely, but they don't seem to be reasoned consideration of the merits but just static.
http://www.peercointalk.org/index.php?topic=2351.0 - This is an example of a critique which is shot down. Is it valid? You decide. From reading their view of it, it sounds like not.
[13] http://www.reddit.com/peercoin
[14] I found this relatively late in my process glancing over /peercoin. http://www.peercointalk.org/index.php?topic=3733 The details of this feature will be considered out-of-scope for this article, already taking longer than I anticipated (as usual).
[15] https://www.peercointalk.org/index.php?topic=4107.0
Additional Reading
http://www.peercoin.net - main site; informative and useful links
/peercoin - somewhat quiet but still active and informative
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=793142.msg8933791#msg8933791 - Peercoin discussion thread
Peercoin whitepaper - (other languages available)
• peercointalk.org - Main discussion forum
Daily challenge
~~Every day I post a challenge worth about $1. The first two day's are still unattempted. Yesterday's has been awarded.
Today's challenge focuses on Peercoin security. A changetip $0.50 tip will be awarded to the comment which in my opinion provides the best information about vulnerabilities in Peercoin's current consensus algorithm / implementation. This may be a link to a source that provides this information or a comment, but a comment referencing fixed problems or simply asserting issues without support will not be accepted as qualifying.
On the other side will be a 1 PPC reward sent to the Peercoin address of your choice for the best argument supported with evidence that Peercoin's consensus algorithm is not vulnerable to any attack. This is a very broad claim, and I wouldn't know how to support it myself, but that's why I'm throwing it out there for discussion.
Making an argument for both sides is allowed and encouraged.~~
[I don't remember if I ever paid up on this. I think I might owe TotalB00n a couple PPC...]
Donations and Disclosure
It has come time again for me to note that I am not an authority nor should my words be used for anything other than entertainment. I am not providing investment advice and you should do your own research independently before you make any investment decisions. Cryptocurrencies may lose all value from technical flaws or simply a loss of faith in their value. Store your treasures in heaven, not on earth nor even in a blockchain. Be gentle and loving in deed and in thought.
I currently hold about 17 PPC.
If you would like to donate PPC to me directly, you may do so at: PDcpAFGWEAJDTey6ghY4FRvvphXv9zkjmn
Thank you all for reading and all of your support! This has already been a great experience for me and I'm looking forward to the excitement still to come.
Well, it doesn't get much lazier than that. Apparently PPC has dropped in price rather significantly since January. I don't know any of the news on it. Informative, eh?
...okay, I'll do a mild amount of "research". One moment.
Well, they have a new release coming out. [15] But I don't see anything obvious from a quick glance at top stories in that subreddit over the past year to see why it crashed over the last five months.
So...hey, let's go really lazy. Rather than me giving you the answers, why don't you tell me wtf happened here? xD
Up next: Nyancoin!
submitted by coinaday to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Primecoin future is bright

I made the effort to read Primecoin and Peercoin whitepaper seriously for the first time yesterday and realized they are both into solving 2 problems that Bitcoin will encounter inevitably: 1) the energy efficiency issue and 2) having high security/low inflation/low fee at the same time is unsustainable.
In primecoin whitepaper, below are the relevant quotes, that stress Primecoin advantanges.
-Security "However, a non-linear difficulty curve would negatively impact block chain security. Also, using prime size as difficulty indicator would interfere with efficiency of verification. Eventually I discovered that the remainder of Fermat test could be used to construct a relatively linear continuous difficulty curve for a given prime chain length. This allows primecoin to largely keep the security property of bitcoin."
-Fee vs Security "However a higher transaction fee reduces the competitiveness of a crypto- currency as payment-processing network. Since last year, bitcoin’s share of network mining income has shrunk much faster than its capital ma rket share. Basically, for a pure proof-of-work design, it’s not real istic to expect all three goals to sustain: high network security, low inflation and low tr ansaction fee. This topic has been explored in ppcoin paper, however it would become more evide nt as the competition intensifies in cryptocurrency market and bitcoin’s infl ation rate drops further. As Moore’s Law approaches its limit, primecoin inflati on rate would taper off and gives a slower drop toward zero. There is still good scarcity pro perty similar to gold while network security is maintained without the need to raise transaction fee." - there is still good scarcity with good security wihout the need of raising the fee!
-Inflation "The inflation in primecoin is designed to drop slower than ppcoin’s proof-of- work minting, to compensate for the need of sustained energy consumption of pure proof-of-work cryptocurrencies."
Conclusion:Primecoin fills a space that is a blue oean and is its first mover. After Bitcoin and Litecoin, Primecoin positions itself as a serious secure and sustainable payment network that has the potential of lasting.
submitted by crypto_coiner to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Primecoin's future is bright

I made the effort to read Primecoin and Peercoin whitepaper seriously for the first time yesterday and realized they are both into solving 2 problems that Bitcoin will encounter inevitably: 1) the energy efficiency issue and 2) having high security/low inflation/low fee at the same time is unsustainable.
In primecoin whitepaper, below are the relevant quotes, that stress Primecoin advantanges.
"However, a non-linear difficulty curve would negatively impact block chain security. Also, using prime size as difficulty indicator would interfere with efficiency of verification. Eventually I discovered that the remainder of Fermat test could be used to construct a relatively linear continuous difficulty curve for a given prime chain length. This allows primecoin to largely keep the security property of bitcoin."
-Network mining income , the sum of all miners’ income, is a direct measureme nt of the level of block chain security across competing pur e proof-of-work cryptocurrency networks. A fixed cap scarcity model relies heavily on transaction fees to sustain network security. . - primecoin does not rely on a fixed cap and fee should be low
"However a higher transaction fee reduces the competitiveness of a crypto- currency as payment-processing network. Since last year, bitcoin’s share of network mining income has shrunk much faster than its capital ma rket share. Basically, for a pure proof-of-work design, it’s not real istic to expect all three goals to sustain: high network security, low inflation and low tr ansaction fee. This topic has been explored in ppcoin paper, however it would become more evide nt as the competition intensifies in cryptocurrency market and bitcoin’s infl ation rate drops further. As Moore’s Law approaches its limit, primecoin inflati on rate would taper off and gives a slower drop toward zero. There is still good scarcity pro perty similar to gold while network security is maintained without the need to raise transaction fee." - there is still good scarcity with good security wihout the need of raising the fee!
"The inflation in primecoin is designed to drop slower than ppcoin’s proof-of- work minting, to compensate for the need of sustained energy consumption of pure proof-of-work cryptocurrencies."
Primecoin fills a space that is a blue oean and is its first mover. After Bitcoin and Litecoin, Primecoin positions itself as a serious secure and sustainable payment network that has the potential of lasting.
submitted by crypto_coiner to peercoin [link] [comments]

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I've created a ppcoin branch with this change, so you can get it with "git checkout ppcoin" in the bitcoin-abe directory. Copy link Quote reply ... We are trying to do a block explorer for RUC if that helps any... Copy link Quote reply Member jtobey commented Feb 7, 2013. Perhaps RUC has a different block header structure from Bitcoin. Please find the definition of class CBlockHeader in the ... It is decendent of Novacoin/PPCoin with Pow/PoS. It combines the great features from Luckycoin (random blocks) and Florincoin (transaction message). Proof of stake coin is more resilient to 51% attack. Since 51% hashpower is not enough to execute a 51% attack. The attackers must also have at least 51% stake. GrowthCoin provides monthly interest rate of 5.95%, for stakes that are held during ... Bitcoin, Litecoin, Namecoin, Dogecoin, Peercoin, Ethereum - price, reward, difficulty, hashrate, market capitalization, block time, blocks count Altcoin: Término empleado para referirse a las criptomonedas o fichas de blockchain alternativas a Bitcoin; como Litecoin, Ethereum, Dash, Monero, Zcash, Feathercoin y PPcoin, entre otros. Altura del bloque: Cantidad de bloques que preceden a otro en una plataforma blockchain. A block explorer instantly verifies an incoming payment. Once a payment has been confirmed by the network, it is secured by world-class cryptography, making it impossible for the customer to reverse. To make a payment, each sender pays a fee of just 0.01 Peercoin. As a merchant, you pay absolutely nothing. How to mine Peercoins If you have never mined Peercoins before then this could be ...

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George Levy - What is a block explorer? - YouTube

A short video explaining what a block explorer is. For the complete text guide visit: http://bit.ly/2DD1vQT Join our 7-day Bitcoin crash course absolutely fr... This follow up tutorial goes over the process of setting up an Iquidus block explorer for your coin. I didn't mention it during the video, but in case it isn... Blockchain/Bitcoin for beginners 6: blocks and mining, content and creation of bitcoin blocks - Duration: 46:48. Matt Thomas 11,077 views In this lab we will look at the block chain real time. We will look at the genesis block, the first bitcoin block ever mined on the network and we will see what the transactions in the block look like I have realised that there is a lot of interest in Bitcoin, Blockchain and Crypto in general. I have decided to do a series of basic tutorials on some vital information for the beginners. This is ...

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